Hand Anatomy

Anatomy of hands

Bones

Hands1small.png


The hand is the extension of the arm and we can distinguish three groups of bones which form its skeleton : the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges. The wrist is formed by two groups of four little bones (carpals). The first group is attached by joints to the ulna and radius bones of the forearm. The lesser group is articulated with the five metacarpals which are found between the wrist and fingers. There are joints between the metacarpals and the finger bones.

The names of the fingers are : Auricular (little finger) ; Digitus Annularis (ring finger) ; Digitus Medius (middle finger) ; Index finger ; Pollex (thumb). They are composed of three bones of varying sizes which are called phalanges. It should be noted that the thumb has only two phalanges.

Bones of the hand
1. Phalanges
2. Metacarapals
3. Carpals

Bones of the forearm
4. Radius
5. Ulna

 

Muscles and tendons of the hand
 

muscles tendons hands

The hand has a very complex system of muscles and tendons which allow it to perform complicated and precise movements. The muscles can be divided into two principal groups : superficial and deep. There are extensor muscles, flexor muscles and ulnar abductors. The flexing muscles are found in the palmar side of the hand, and the stretching in the dorsal side. Each finger has its own muscles and each muscle is connected to the bone by tendons. On the inner side of the hand the thenar eminence, thumb muscle, and the hypothenar eminence, little finger muscle, are joined in the palm. This conjuction allows the thumb to be in opposition to the other fingers. That, and the ability to lift the index or little finger individually are characteristics unique to the human hand.

 

Circulation and nerves

circulation and nerves



The hand has an abundant supply of blood due to the two principal arteries, radial and ulna, which run through it. These arteries are found in the forearm next to the radius and ulna bones from which they get their name. A multitude of nerves stimulate the muscles, and sensory corpuscles thickly spread throughout the skin of the hand give it the sensitivity to perceive heat, cold, humidity, roughness, etc., of an object or its dimensions.

 

The MAVALA hand care programme

The skin of our hands is very fragile because of the poor quality of the network of sebaceous glands in them. They therefore dry out easily, and to make matters worse, we often expose them to detergents, sun exposure and other cleaning products without adequate protection. These factors plus harmful sun rays accelerate the dehydration of our hands. This range of products has been developed by MAVALA to care for and beautify hands. It will keep them smooth and healthy. This programme is based on active natural ingredients that include hyaluronic acid and silk amino acids. These ingredients work together to maintain continuous moisturizing.